Our January 2018 Newsletter, Bookmarks, has been published , and you can view it online at the link provided. Several articles are included covering Medicare, Medicaid, nursing home resident dumping, and the new tax law. Let us know if you want to be added to the email list.
I want to make available to you a guide titled Managing Someone Else’s Money in Alabama. This guide was adapted from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s (CFPB) Managing Someone Else’s Money guides and tailored to Alabama state law by members of The Alabama Interagency Council for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Jones School of Law Elder law Clinic at Faulkner University and AARP Alabama. The work was overseen by Clinical Associate Professor John Craft, and his Research Assistant, Lauren Hogeland. Many thanks for their work helping caregivers understand their duties.
We have been working on a publishing project with Middle Alabama Area Agency on Aging (M4A) to produce dementia friendly resources for professionals and caregivers. This booklet was published in June 2017 and can be read here. To download you will need to go to the publishing platform, Issue, to create a free account or download the pdf here. Printed copies may be obtained by contacting M4A at (205) 670-5770 or toll free (866) 570-2998.
Last week I spoke to the alumni social workers group at The University of North Alabama in Florence, Alabama, and shared information about authority and capacity issues for seniors. I promised to post additional information for reference on our web site, so here you have it.
The Alabama Uniform Power of Attorney Act effective January 1, 2012, is found at Alabama Code (1975) Sections 26-1A-101 through 404. The standard power of attorney form is found at Section 26–1A–301. This power is presumed durable without specific language being required like previous powers of attorney.
ALA. CODE § 26-1A-120(a)(3) provides that a person may not require an additional or different form of power of attorney for authority granted in the power of attorney presented, and a person who refuses to effect a transaction in reliance upon an acknowledged power of attorney may be subject a court order mandating that the person effect the transaction. If the document is found to be valid, attorneys fees and costs incurred may be awarded.
The Portable Physician Do Not Attempt Resuscitation Orders regulation is found at Board of Health 420-5-19-.02. Different facilities can continue to use their own forms, but for the order to be portable the statutory form provided in the regulation is required.
The capacity assessment materials I discussed produced by the American Bar Association and American Psychological Association can be found here.
What a great group of social workers I met, and I look forward to speaking again to the group in August.
The term “life estate” often comes up in discussions of estate and Medicaid planning, but what exactly does it mean? A life estate is a form of joint ownership that allows one person to remain in a house until his or her death, at which time it passes to the other owner, referred to as the person with the remainder interest. Life estates can be used to avoid probate while giving a house to children without losing the ability to live in the home, remaining responsible for property tax – with the benefit of homestead and age related tax exemptions, remaining responsible for homeowner insurance, yet creating ownership in the children at the death of the parent. This type of deed can play an important role in Medicaid planning since Medicaid does not assign any value to a life estate when the parent applies for Medicaid to pay for nursing home care. If the transfer occurred prior to five years before application, there will be no penalty for the transfer.
In a life estate, two or more people each have an ownership interest in a property, but for different periods of time. The person holding the life estate — the life tenant — possesses the property during his or her life. The other owner — the remainderman — has a current ownership interest but cannot take possession until the death of the life estate holder. The life tenant has full control of the property during his or her lifetime and has the legal responsibility to maintain the property as well as the right to use it, rent it out, and make improvements to it.
Another example of use of life estates is when a spouse who owns property in only his or her name wants to leave that property to his or her children from a former marriage but wants the later in life spouse to be protected and have a place to live. That person might write a will leaving a life estate to the spouse with the remainder to his or her children on the death of the spouse. This comes up not infrequently when individuals want to protect property passed to them by family and who want to keep that property in their blood line while protecting the spouse as well.
When the life tenant dies, the house will not go through probate, since at the life tenant’s death the ownership will pass automatically to the holders of the remainder interest. Because the property is not included in the life tenant’s probate estate, it can avoid Medicaid estate recovery in states that have not expanded the definition of estate recovery to include non-probate assets, which includes Alabama at the time this is being written.
Although the property will not be included in the probate estate, it will be included in the taxable estate. Depending on the size of the estate and the state’s estate tax threshold, the property may be subject to estate taxation. However, the joint federal lifetime estate tax exemption and gift tax exclusion is $5,490,000, so few people are actually subject to estate tax.
The life tenant cannot sell or mortgage the property without the agreement of the remaindermen. If the property is sold, the proceeds are divided up between the life tenant and the remaindermen. The shares are determined based on the life tenant’s age at the time — the older the life tenant, the smaller his or her share and the larger the share of the remaindermen.
Be aware that transferring your property and retaining a life estate can trigger a Medicaid ineligibility period if Medicaid application is made within five years of the transfer. Further, purchasing a life estate should not result in a transfer penalty if you buy a life estate in someone else’s home, pay an appropriate amount for the property and live in the house for more than a year.
For example, an elderly man who can no longer live in his home might sell the home and use the proceeds to buy a home for himself and his son and daughter-in-law, with the father holding a life estate and the younger couple as the remaindermen. Alternatively, the father could purchase a life estate interest in the children’s existing home. Assuming the father lives in the home for more than a year and he paid a fair amount for the life estate, the purchase of the life estate should not be a disqualifying transfer for Medicaid. Just be aware that there may be some local variations on how this is applied, so get good advice before finalizing arrangements involving a life estate if long term care could be a future concern.
SSI is the basic federal safety net program for the elderly, blind and disabled, providing them with a minimum guaranteed income. If your resources are above the program’s resource limits of $2,000 for an individual or $3,000 for a married couple, you may be able to “spend down” to qualify for SSI, similar to the process to qualify for the Medicaid program.
If you give away a resource or sell it for less than it is worth in order to get under the SSI resource limit, you may be ineligible for SSI for up to 36 months. The SSA looks at whether or not you have transferred a resource within the previous three years. If you have, it computes a penalty period by dividing the amount of the transfer by your monthly benefit amount.
Thus, if you give your son a $6,000 gift and then apply for a monthly SSI benefit of $600 within three years of the gift, you will not be eligible for SSI for 10 months (6,000/600=10). That 10-month period will begin on the date of the transfer and end 10 months later. In other words, although you can be ineligible for up to 36 months due to a transfer, that is only a cap. The actual period of ineligibility is based on the value of what you transferred divided by the monthly benefit in your state.
You should be aware that transfers may be “cured” by the person to whom you made a gift returning it to you. And, finally, there are certain exceptions to the transfer penalty. These include gifts to:
A spouse (or anyone else for the spouse’s benefit);
A blind or disabled child;
A trust for the benefit of a blind or disabled child;
A trust for the sole benefit of a disabled individual under age 65 (even if the trust is for the benefit of the applicant, under certain circumstances).
In addition, special exceptions apply to the transfer of a home. The SSI applicant may freely transfer his or her home to the following individuals without incurring a transfer penalty:
The applicant’s spouse;
A child who is under age 21 or who is blind or disabled;
Into a trust for the sole benefit of a disabled individual under age 65 (even if the trust is for the benefit of the applicant, under certain circumstances);
A sibling who has lived in the home during the year preceding the applicant’s institutionalization and who already holds an equity interest in the home; or
A “caretaker child,” who is defined as a child of the applicant who lived in the house for at least two years prior to the applicant’s institutionalization and who during that period provided care that allowed the applicant to avoid a nursing home stay.
Taxpayers with long-term care insurance policies can deduct some of their premiums from their income. Whether you can use the deduction requires comparing your medical expenses to your income in a complicated formula.
Premiums for qualified long-term care insurance policies are tax deductible to the extent that they, along with other unreimbursed medical expenses (including Medicare premiums), exceed 10 percent of the insured’s adjusted gross income. In tax year 2016, taxpayers 65 and older only need medical expenses to exceed 7.5 percent of their income, but in 2017, taxpayers 65 and older will have the same 10 percent rule as everyone else.
The amount of long-term care insurance premium that is deductible is based on the taxpayer’s age and changes each year. For the 2016 tax year, taxpayers who are 40 or younger can deduct only $390 a year, taxpayers between 40 and 50 can deduct $730, taxpayers between 50 and 60 can deduct $1460, taxpayers between 60 and 70 can deduct $3,900, and taxpayers who are 70 or older can deduct up to $4,870 in premiums.
What this means is that taxpayers must total all of their medical expenses and compare them to their income. For example, suppose 64-year-old Frank has an adjusted gross income of $30,000 and long-term care premiums totaling $5,000 as well $1,000 in other medical expenses. Ten percent of $30,000 is $3,000. Frank can only deduct any medical expenses that exceed $3,000. The 2016 limit for deducting long-term care premiums is $3,900. That means Frank can only count $3,900 of his long-term care premiums. If he adds the $3,900 in long-term care premiums to the $1,000 in other expenses his total medical expenses are $4,900. He can deduct $1,900 in medical expenses from his income.
If Frank is 70 in 2016, the calculation changes because his medical expenses only need to exceed 7.5 percent of his income, which would be $2,250. The amount of premiums he can deduct is also increased because of his age–he can deduct up to $4,870 in premiums. Subtracting the income limit from his medical expenses ($4,870 in long-term care premiums and $1,000 in other expenses), Frank can deduct $3,620 in medical expenses from his income. In 2017, Frank will only be able to deduct medical expenses that exceeded 10 percent of his income, so the amount he can deduct will go down.